How To Cite

Generally, your instructor will recommend a citation style for you to use.

Sources are cited in slightly different ways according to various disciplinary traditions. At Ryerson, APA is used in a large number of classes.apa_mla_chicago

Citation Styles


American Psychological Association (APA) style is the most commonly used citation style in the Social Sciences, and is occasionally used in the Humanities as well.


Modern Language Association (MLA) style is a commonly used citation style in the Humanities, especially in Literature.

Chicago style

Chicago or Turabian style, from the University of Chicago, is often used in the Humanities, especially History, and is very occasionally used in the Social Sciences. The Chicago style offers two systems for quoting references: a footnotes/endnotes bibliography system (Humanities) and an author/date system (Social Sciences).

Getting help with Styles

Online resources and handouts are available in the Library and Writing Support! Both are available to help you with the citation styles.